Lead-acid BatteryLead Acid Battery is a rechargeable battery developed in 1859 by Gaston Plante. They are one of the oldest rechargeable batteries available today.
Due to their low cost (for the capacity) compared to newer battery technologies and the ability to provide high surge currents (an important factor in automobiles), Lead Acid Batteries are still the preferred choice of batteries in almost all vehicles.
The main concern with any battery is it discharges over time and must be recharged so that it can provide the necessary voltage and current.
The lead acid battery uses the constant current constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method. A regulated current raises the terminal voltage until the upper charge voltage limit is reached, at which point the current drops due to saturation. The charge time is 12-16 hours and up to 36-48 hours for large stationary batteries. With higher charge currents and multi-stage charge methods, the charge time can be reduced to 8-10 hours. Lead acid is sluggish and cannot be charged as quickly as other battery systems.
How to Recharge a Lead Acid Battery?
To charge a battery from AC we need a step down transformer, a rectifier, filtering circuit, regulator to maintain the constant voltage. Then we can give the regulated voltage to the battery to charge it. Think if you have only DC voltage and charge the lead acid battery, we can do it by giving that DC voltage to a DC-DC voltage regulator and some extra circuitry before giving to the lead acid battery. Car battery is also a lead acid battery.
Lead acid batteries should be charged in three stages, which are  constant-current charge,  topping charge and  float charge. The constant-current charge applies the bulk of the charge and takes up roughly half of the required charge time; the topping charge continues at a lower charge current and provides saturation, and the float charge compensates for the loss caused by self-discharge.
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The four-segment smart charging procedure is built inside the automatic charger, which can make the lead-acid battery be most fully & optimized charged and the service life of the lead-acid battery be extended.
1. Soft Start
In the instant of the charger is powered on, the buffering process of power from small to large has certain protective effect on the charger.
2. Constant Current
At this stage, the charger output rating current to fast charging so as to improve the charging rate.
Battery voltage is gradually increased, At the same time in order to prevent excessive charging, the charger limits the charging voltage to a range of safe value, and when the charging voltage rises to the set value, the charging current will slowly decrease, at this time, the charger enters constant voltage stage to continue to charge the battery.
3. Constant voltage
In this phase, the charger
charging current will decrease gradually, which can reduce the battery heating and vaporization, effectively the avoid battery excessive aging and early damaged.
When The capacity of the battery is to about 90%, the indicator will turns orange shortly, the charger will turn to floating mode to supplement the power.
4. Floating charge
At this stage, the charger is set to only output a lower voltage and current, which can not only guarantee 100% of the battery capacity, still can protecting the battery from the unnecessary burden, As far as possible to prolong the life of battery. At this time the indicator turns green, which indicates the battery has been basically charged full.